In many industries, the energy consumption is monitored and controlled using meters and systems. In power systems, measuring the consumed energy is not possible. A common practice is to measure the current and voltage and calculate the power using Ohm's law. In a switcher, the ratings of the switching devices and contains nonpower-consuming diodes where the power losses occur. A common practice is to make the numbers of ratings equal to each other. This will ensure no losses in the diodes. The losses in the switching devices are directly proportional to the number of times the switches turn on and off per second. In other words, a higher switching frequency will have lower losses. The rate at which the switches turn on and off is referred to as the duty cycle. Energy losses are proportional to the product of the number of times per second and the duty cycle. That is why some devices like IGBTs and MOSFETS have lower losses compared to bipolar devices. By just modifying the number of times each switching device turns on and off, the losses are reduced and the efficiency is improved.
To ensure proper operation, a basic requirement for most power electronic circuits is to have a feedback signal. In some production lines, the output power is measured directly. For most consumer applications, the measurement is taken using a meter. The output power of such switching devices is converted to a representation as current or voltage. Measuring only the output power can have certain disadvantages in certain applications. For example, a diode rectifier changes the current while a three-phase silicon-controlled rectifier changes the voltage. In the process, the number of electronic components is increased, which can add to the size and cost of the system. Output power measurement also may be inaccurate for circuits with a large number of stages as the losses (or the output power) may be significantly reduced once in each legs of these circuits.
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