Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) is a commonly used diagnostic imaging method for coronary artery disease. Virtual histology (VH) characterizes the plaque components into fibrous tissue (FT), fibro-fatty tissue (FFT), necrotic core (NC), or dense calcium (DC). However, VH can obtain only a single-frame image in one cardiac cycle, and specific software is needed to obtain the radio frequency data. This study proposed a novel intensity-based multi-level classification model for plaque characterization.
This study proposed a novel intensity-based multi-level classification model to classify the components of coronary plaque. The proposed method extracts six texture feature sets from the plaque region of an IVUS image. These features were optimized using principle component analysis (PCA). Then, the proposed classification model characterizes plaque components into FT, FFT, NC, or DC.
This study proposed a novel intensity-based multi-level classification model to classify coronary plaque components in IVUS images. The proposed method selected 10 features that included FOS, GLCM, and LEM as key indicators for the characterization of plaque components. Quantitative results indicated that the proposed method showed significantly high classification accuracy for all tissue types. Net 1, 2, and 3 classifiers revealed classification accuracies of 85.1%, 71.9%, and 77.2%, respectively, and the areas under the curve were 0.845, 0.704, and 0.783. In particular, the proposed method achieved relatively high sensitivity (82.0%) and specificity (87.1%) for differentiating between FT/FFT and NC/DC groups. These results confirmed the clinical applicability of the proposed approach for IVUS-based tissue characterization. To improve classification accuracy, future studies should include additional experiments with a greater amount of NC data. Tissue characterization of 45 MHz IVUS images needs to be validated with various textural feature sets. Moreover, another experiment on controlling the level of noises in the various patterns will be performed.
In order to make the episode \"as moving\" as possible, Carter sought to echo elements of James Whale's 1931 film version of Frankenstein. He later noted that, by \"using modern science, I took an old style, which is black and white, and an old approach, which is a kind of James Whale approach to science fiction, and came up with a story about a love-lorn monster\".
Malia has learned of her link to Peter Hale and breaks into the Hale Vault to learn more about her. She is found there by Peter who tells her that he doesn't know who her mother is but that he has been searching for her since Lydia told him the truth about his daughter. He has learnt only that she goes by the name of the Desert Wolf.Stiles Stilinski, Malia's boyfriend, has started his own search for the Desert Wolf's identity, much to Malia's delight. During the Beacon Hills High School's lacrosse game, Peter approaches Malia and tells her that he has found her mother but while only tell her who it is if she helps him kill Kate Argent. Derek Hale asks his girlfriend, Braeden, if she was really once a US Marshal (her most frequent cover story) and she tells him that she was. However, she left when her hunt for a single being took up all her time: the Desert Wolf. 781b155fdc