Atmospheric winds are a key physical phenomenon impacting natural hazards, energy transport, ocean currents, large-scale circulation, and ecosystem fluxes. Observing winds is a complex process and presents a large gap in NASA's Earth Observation System. Atmospheric motion vectors (AMVs) aim to fill this gap by making numerical estimates of cloud movement between sequences of multi-spectral satellite images, tracking clouds and water vapor. Recent imaging hardware and software advancements have enabled the use of numerical optical flow techniques to produce accurate and dense vector fields outperforming traditional methods. This work presents WindFlow as the first machine learning based system for feature tracking atmospheric motion using optical flow. Due to the lack of large-scale satellite-based observations, we leverage high-resolution numerical simulations from NASA's GEOS-5 Nature Run to perform supervised learning and transfer to satellite images. We demonstrate that our approach using deep learning based optical flow scales to ultra-high-resolution images of size 2881x5760 with less than 1 m/s bias and 2.5 m/s average error. Four network and learning architectures are compared and it is found that recurrent all-pairs field transforms (RAFT) produces the lowest errors on all metrics for wind speed and direction. Results on held out numerical outputs show RAFT's good performance in each of the spatial, temporal, and physical dimensions. A comparison between WindFlow and an operational AMV product against rawinsonde observations shows that RAFT transfers across simulations and thermal infrared satellite observations. This work shows that machine learning based optical flow is an efficient approach to generating robust feature tracking for AMVs consistently over large regions.
The psychotherapy intervention technique is a multifaceted conversation between a therapist and a patient. Unlike general clinical discussions, psychotherapy's core components (viz. symptoms) are hard to distinguish, thus becoming a complex problem to summarize later. A structured counseling conversation may contain discussions about symptoms, history of mental health issues, or the discovery of the patient's behavior. It may also contain discussion filler words irrelevant to a clinical summary. We refer to these elements of structured psychotherapy as counseling components. In this paper, the aim is mental health counseling summarization to build upon domain knowledge and to help clinicians quickly glean meaning. We create a new dataset after annotating 12.9K utterances of counseling components and reference summaries for each dialogue. Further, we propose ConSum, a novel counseling-component guided summarization model. ConSum undergoes three independent modules. First, to assess the presence of depressive symptoms, it filters utterances utilizing the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), while the second and third modules aim to classify counseling components. At last, we propose a problem-specific Mental Health Information Capture (MHIC) evaluation metric for counseling summaries. Our comparative study shows that we improve on performance and generate cohesive, semantic, and coherent summaries. We comprehensively analyze the generated summaries to investigate the capturing of psychotherapy elements. Human and clinical evaluations on the summary show that ConSum generates quality summary. Further, mental health experts validate the clinical acceptability of the ConSum. Lastly, we discuss the uniqueness in mental health counseling summarization in the real world and show evidences of its deployment on an online application with the support of mpathic.ai 2b1af7f3a8